Semiconductor device fabrication is the process
used to create the integrated circuits that are present in everyday electrical and electronic devices. It is a multiple-step sequence
of photo lithographic and chemical processing steps during which electronic circuits are gradually created on a wafer made of pure
semiconducting material. Silicon is almost always used, but various compound semiconductors are used for specialized applications.
The entire manufacturing process, from start to packaged chips ready for shipment, takes six to eight weeks and is performed
in highly specialized facilities referred to as fabs.